大纪元2019年08月23日讯 中共国家媒体的脸书(Facebook)、推特(Twitter)账户粉丝哪里来?这些社交媒体公司采取的封号行动再次揭开了这些秘密——中共官方用财政资金支持国家媒体海外增粉

,加上市场公开的卖粉渠道,两者一拍而合,打造了数量庞大的海外脸书、推特粉丝团。

推特、脸书8月19日宣布,封锁散发有关香港反送中示威活动的假消息的账号,这些账号背后由中共官方主导。

为此,推特停用了中国境内的936个核心账户,同时锁定了与这些账户互动的20万个自动推特账户。推特还宣布,不再接受中共国家控制的媒体在推特平台上投放广告,并已向FBI报告了中共的这些活动。

根据推特公布的问题账号列表信息,许多被封的账号名由无意义的乱码组成(“僵尸粉”的特征),大部分使用中文账号名,其余为英文。有的账号几乎没有粉丝,有的却有几万名粉丝。

更诡异的是,数十个账号的粉丝数量及追踪账户的数量一模一样;其中有的账号创建于2009年,这与中共媒体进驻海外社交媒体的时间表同步。

继推特、脸书封锁账号后,谷歌(Google)旗下的视频平台YouTube亦关闭了210个YouTube频道。

大外宣从2009年开始设官方账号、大笔投钱
2009年是中共将媒体外宣上升到国家战略的一个转折点。为了改善中共糟糕的国际形象,向世界发出中共的声音,中共推出了一项“大外宣”计划,除了收购、收买当地媒体外,还推动中共官方媒体机构向国际扩张。据悉,中共在这项计划上已投入了450亿人民币。

当年,中共中央更出台《2009-2020 我国重点媒体国际传播能力建设总体规划》(中办24号文件),要求到2020年,“在报刊、通讯社、广播电视和互联网等领域建成若干具有国际影响力的传媒集团,形成与我国经济社会发展水平和国际地位相称的媒体国际传播力”。

此项规划把大型国家媒体,如《人民日报》、新华社、中央电视台、国际台、《中国日报》、中新社及其新闻网站的对外传播纳入其中,并加大对媒体的专项支持和扶持力度。

其中一项具体的措施是拓展宣传到海外社交媒体。 2009年,中央电视台在脸书(Facebook)开设了首个中共国家级媒体的英文账号;人民网在脸书和推特上建立了People’s Daily账号;2014年,新华社也开通了脸书账号。

截至2019年8月21日,《人民日报》、新华社、央视的脸书“粉丝”分别达到7,869万、6,554万和5,016万,远超美国有限电视台(CNN)以及《纽约时报》的粉丝数(分别为3,183万和634万)。

不过,这些数量庞大的粉丝并非因为中共官方媒体的吸引力所汇聚,而是中共靠撒钱得来的。

政府采购网公告证实 用财政资金增粉
中共政府采购网8月16日公布的中国新闻社、中新网《Twitter账号推广政府采购项目中标公告》以及《Facebook(脸书)账号推广政府采购项目》显示,分别以125万元预算增加推特粉丝58万、以121万元预算增加脸书67万粉丝。

如果把经费平摊到每个账户,相当于1个推特账号值2元1毛5分;1个脸书账户值1元8毛。

这不是中新网第一次公开招标增粉。根据中共政府采购网的历史记录,2017年中新网的招标项目“脸书推广服务”,指资金来源属于财政性资金,分三波增粉:第一波是2018年10月31日止,要求中新网的官方脸书账号新增30万粉丝,预算资金75万元;第二波对推特增粉,预算资金也是75万元。

同样,新华社2019年4月的招标公告“全媒体采编发互联网数据资源引入项目互联网数据资源引入子项”中也提出用672万元监测海外媒体、采集海外社交媒体外国媒体账号分析数据(比如阅读数、转发数、互动数)。

“《人民日报》英文客户端技术开发及运营推广项目”的内容包括,投入404万推广其脸书渠道,重点在亚洲新增用户,包括印度、新加坡、马来西亚、菲律宾以及日本。

中共官方用财政资金支持媒体增粉,加上市场公开的卖粉渠道,两者就此一拍而合。

100个脸书粉20元 量大可从优
用钱买粉(丝)已不是什么秘密,在淘宝或者谷歌中输入对应的关键词“买粉+推特”就能出来结果。

动点科技(abacusnews)英文记者玛莎•博拉克(Masha Borak)在2019年5月亲自尝试从淘宝店购买推特粉丝。

她最后跟淘宝店主达成的成交价是,增加100个脸书粉丝要20元(约3美元)、100个Instagram粉丝要10元(1.50美元),推特账号则更贵一些,最后她为增加100个推特账户粉丝付费35元(5.3美元)。

店主还表示,如果选择僵尸粉(机器人),可以更便宜;同时量大可从优,比如如果脸书增粉1万个,就只要1500元(约223美元)。

2018年,海外媒体曾关注中共国有媒体在海外买粉的事情。当年1月,纽约州总检察长施奈德曼(Eric Sc​​hneiderman)表示,在调查推特大V(很多人关注的账号)背后的“粉丝工厂”。

《纽约时报》当时报导说,许多著名的推特账户都有一家叫“Devumi”公司生产的粉丝,并点名中共国家通讯社新华社的一名编辑从该公司买粉。

报导说,这名编辑向Devumi购买了数十万个粉丝以及推特上的转发。虽然中共政府屏蔽推特,但仍利用推特作为其在国外进行宣传的平台。

中共媒体用推特、脸书做什么?宣传
根据英国威斯敏斯特大学(University of Westminster)对中共官方媒体社交账号的研究,从2016年10月1日到2017年10月24日之间,中国媒体在中国事务上使用最高的推特词汇是“习近平”(1429条)和“近平”(299条)。

至于那些与中国主题不相关的推文,中国媒体推特使用最多的是“突发”(Breaking),这个词经常和“说”(says)、“被杀”(killed)、“受伤”( injured)、“警察”(police)一起出现;其次是各国总统的名字,比如美国总统川普以及俄罗斯总统普京。

研究发现,中共官方媒体发布的推文中有六成以上是中国事务,推特上的新闻议程跟官方平台上发布的类似,虽使用英文语种,仍有宣传的意味。

中国(中共)主席,特别是领导人正式访问(出访)的新闻,往往是中共官媒推文中最突出的主题。其次是中共总理的动态,另外,北京、上海和香港等大都市以及中国的成就与发展也是官媒推特频繁报导的对象和重点。

中央人民广播电台在2018年8月7日发出的招标公告中对此有更直接的表述:“在脸书和推特上开设的账号主要推送习近平主席重要讲话及相关活动、我国经济建设成就、各领域先进人物等体现中国社会主义建设成就的相关报导,讲好中国故事。”

张广昭在《金融时报》中文网发文说,中国新闻媒体定位是“党和政府的耳目喉舌”,在一些西方受众看来,这样的定位可能会损害媒体客观、公正的准则,“他们的理解是,中国媒体,尤其是官方媒体意识形态味道过重,缺乏监督职能”。

量大高频挤占推特空间 抢占话语权
每当中国国内有重大事件发生时,媒体的海外社交账号都会集中输出大量相关报导,但在议程巧置、话题选择和报导方式上都趋于一致,中共媒体仍是“党和政府的耳目喉舌”。

不过,多家中共国家媒体借助海外平台发声可以造势,因为无论有多少家中国国家媒体,它们的声音都只有一个,但数量却很多。

中共国际舆情研究中心研究员相德宝等人建议,中共传统媒体在社交媒体上对国内重大事件与众多涉及人权、民族、宗教等主题的热点事件上,应当主动发声。否则,相当于将议程和框架的设置权拱手让给西方传统主流媒体。

不妨以中国南海为例。在#中国南海(#southchinasea)标签上,中共的三大国家媒体(《人民日报》、新华社、央视)是这一问题的最活跃推特账户,已经跻身前15名。但是,在该问题上最有发言权的仍然是美国的多家新闻以及智库账户的原创推文。虽然中共官方媒体在这方面未打破美国消息的主导地位,但中共在发布频率之高明显超过美方。

当然这跟中共媒体的不良操作也有关系。

英国威斯敏斯特大学的研究对中国南海的推特传播数据进行分析后发现,中共官方媒体涉嫌通过重复推文、扭曲新闻议程的系统性传播操作,这种活动通常由自动机器人账户来操作执行。

因为推特用户倾向于通过滚动时间表或浏览他们关注的推文、而不是通过搜索来获取新闻,所以这种行为可以让中共官方媒体的推文在中国南海问题上“真实地”占据推特空间(类似霸屏)。

只不过,这种机器人操作的重复推文(2,400条)没有收到一条粉丝的喜欢或转发回应,这意味着即便机器人账户在想方设法吸引一些合法粉丝关注,无奈中共官媒的推文本身太不具吸引力。

不喜欢互动 因粉丝追着给负评
中共媒体账户也能收到很多与众不同的网民跟贴,只是网民对他们推文的“积极”回复不是表态支持消息本身。

所以,中共媒体的官方推特号很少回复推文,或与粉丝保持互动;它们主要使用推特作为单向传播媒介。因为这不同于在国内社交媒体(如微信、微博)上操作,中共官媒无法删除推特上的批评回复。而且它们担心,如果“积极”回应这些批评,反而会鼓励海外网民进一步转发这些内容(进行讽刺),这有可能会破坏官媒竭力塑造的“大国形象”。

英国威斯敏斯特大学的研究指出,从情感分析看,中共媒体推特帐户收到的很多回复都是负面的,而且不少粉丝跟踪它们推文的目的就是为了质疑他们的内容。

根据中共国内媒体从业人员(中国外文局对外传播研究中心副研究员孙敬鑫以及央广新媒体副总编辑伍刚)撰写的报告,海外被访者很少接触中国(中共)媒体的主要原因包括:一是“不知道应该看什么中国媒体”,二是“话语表达方式不地道,看不明白”,三是认为中国(中共)媒体(包括网络媒体)不可信。

人民网研究院2019年1月发表的文章(《人民日报》推特(Twitter)对外传播的策略分析——以十九大报导为例)中也透露同样的原因,因为海外受众对《人民日报》在播报中国政治、经济类新闻的信任度低,因此就不愿意接受这些涉及意识形态的“硬新闻”。

美国哈佛大学肯尼迪政治学院教授约瑟夫‧奈(Joseph S. Nye Jr.)是“软实力”概念的提出者。他曾对其中国学生说,“最有效的宣传是不去宣传”,而在信息时代,“最稀缺的资源是可信度”。

显然,“可信度”是中共官方媒体天生就不具备的品质。

信息来源大纪元

编辑:MO FO

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