本文译自美国新晋保守派刊物 American Greatness(12月17日)

原标题:Death of The Weekly Standard Signals Rebirth of the Right

作者克里斯·巴斯柯克(Chris Buskirk),American Greatness 的发行人兼主编

本文由 万吉庆 译,译文约3200字

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新保守主义(Neoconservatism)死了,美国保守主义万岁。这是我在听说《旗帜周刊》(The Weekly Standard)即将被老东家Clarity Media扫地关门后,脑海里冒出的第一个念头。《旗帜》是特定时间、特定地点的产物,诞生于上世纪90年代,那是一个布什-克林顿掌权,孤芳自赏的华盛顿政治阶层得势的年代。正因为此,它从未真正契合富有历史意义的美国保守主义。它始终是某种异质的东西,而且是有意为之。可以说,该杂志对川普、对川普的选民以及对“美国优先”纲领的敌视,并不令人吃惊。

 

2002年,马克斯·布特(Max Boot)曾将这份杂志形容为“新保守主义的最后堡垒”,他说得没错。如果说,《国家评论》(National Review)是上世纪七八十年代里根主义的机关报,那么,《旗帜周刊》就是布什主义的旗帜。但是,老布什、小布什并不是里根的衣钵传人,也不是保守主义者(译注:原文如此)。他们从未服膺任何可辨识的政治哲学,除了坚信应该由他们治理国家。他们代表的无非是20世纪中期的乡村俱乐部,他们满足于看到政府规模和职权的日益扩张,只要他们能分得一杯羹。《旗帜周刊》参与了整个过程,他们在国内倡导所谓的大政府保守主义,在国外奉行道德帝国主义。这一切都失败了。布什政府因政策无效和无能而声誉扫地,布什主义吹鼓手的失败也不过是时间问题。

 

然而,《旗帜周刊》的生与死,其实反映了美国保守主义的死而复生,而美国保守主义,不过是美国建国原则的现代政治表达。

 

如同其他更致命的左翼自由主义的政治形式,尽管扼杀了他们所接触的几乎一切东西,新保守主义者仍然维持着一种贵族式的统治自觉。正是这种狂妄自大和自命不凡的道德主义,促使他们积极倡导无休止的对外战争,并且干涉他国内政。对《旗帜周刊》来说,派遣成千上万的美国人为保卫伊拉克边境而死是有道理的,但他们却不愿为保护我们自己的国家尽举手之劳。现实世界因采取他们的政策自食其果,在这种情况下,保守主义者意识到《旗帜周刊》并不能代表他们。

 

多年来,新保守主义者一直破坏乃至败坏从林肯到里根以来的保守主义者的工作,后者一直坚持一套共同的原则和常识性的理解,即美国是美国人的美国,政府的职责是保护美国人民——而且只应该是美国人民——的权利和利益。不过,近年来,比尔·克里斯托尔(Bill Kristol,译注:《旗帜周刊》的创始人和主编)对自己的真实信仰不再遮遮掩掩。例如,他在推特上告诉我们,他“强烈地偏爱正常的民主和宪政政治。这意味着我更情愿接受‘幕后国家’(deep state),而非川普式的国家(Trump state)”,在另一处,他说到,“共和党的税改法案,激发出我内心深处的社会主义本能。”有一点很关键,克里斯托尔和《旗帜周刊》对保守主义原则的依恋,始终是临时的权宜之计。共和党和保守主义运动,不过是他们追求个人声望和政策议程的临时工具。现在,克里斯托尔和其他人已经开始寻找新的寄主。

 

这是因为华盛顿的新保守主义圈子(《旗帜周刊》就是典型)仅仅在某种意义上和理念有关,它还关乎权力,更重要的是关乎特权——这意味着优渥的闲职(sinecures,译注:意味着领薪水但不用负责任)。说的委婉点,这正是国人憎恶政治的原因,这常常造就自私的野心家,而非坚守美国式的理念,即建立和维持政府制度乃是为了使个人、家庭和教会繁荣昌盛。

 

《旗帜周刊》支持者——许多人是这家杂志的撰稿人——的反应证明了问题所在。《评论》杂志(Commentary,译注:新保守主义者的另一家杂志)的主编约翰·波德霍雷茨在一篇急就章中大声疾呼,《旗帜》遭到了“谋杀”,并称关掉《旗帜》是“智力和政治上的犯罪”,与此同时,马克斯·布特在《华盛顿邮报》撰文,谴责对《旗帜周刊》的“谋杀”,并将其斥为“破坏性、愚蠢的和残忍的行径”。糟糕的是,他还贬低菲尔·安舒茨(Phil Anschutz)——《旗帜周刊》的长期所有人、一个享有盛誉的美国商人——“一个富裕的所有者对他的一件玩具失去了兴趣,这没有什么好奇怪的。”

 

懂了吗?按照这些人的世界观,菲尔·安舒茨是一个票友,达不到他们的高度。但他们很乐意拿走他的钱,只要他还愿意支付。各家媒体均有报道,安舒茨抹平了《旗帜周刊》数百万美元的亏损,还搭上了过去几年来的脸面。或许,朱莉·凯利(Julie Kelly)道出了真相,克里斯托尔和那些“绝不支持川普”的煽动者并没有什么原则性分歧,事实上,他已经成为彼埃尔·奥米迪亚等左翼亿万富豪资助的(保守主义阵营内部的)第五纵队作家。

 

赞助人啊,长点心吧:这正是华盛顿精英对你们所有人的看法。他们拿走你的钱,然后在你背后冷嘲热讽。不仅吃相难看,而且做得也不对。

 

总体而言,《旗帜周刊》和新保守主义在临终的那些日子——一度知性蓬勃的政治倡议沦为一曲悲伤的绝唱——只想着确保自己最广为人知的遗产,所以,它一边为永无休止、毫无胜算的战争(译注:美国在中东的一系列战争)摇旗呐喊,一边为抵抗运动(译注:NeverTrump运动)煽风点火。2015年的一天,克里斯托尔及其《旗帜周刊》开始向美国右派和共和党宣战。我们始终没有让他们满意,他们没有让我们忘记这一点。当美国人抱怨他们的战争,抱怨中产阶级的毁灭,抱怨大规模移民对他们社区的冲击,克里斯托尔说:“看吧,实话实说,如果白人工人阶级的境况真像你们说得那么糟,为什么你们不愿意让新的美国人进来?”比尔,你错了。我们有责任帮助我们的美国同胞,而不是将他们换掉。他们不是机器,他们是人。我们的人民(Our People)。政治和文化领域正在发生急剧变迁,《旗帜周刊》为自己对待同胞的态度(视之为棋子)付出了代价。

 

经历了数十年地狱般的生活,保守主义老字号(Conservatism, Inc.)——犹如一个烂摊子——正濒于死亡,这在很大程度上源于它接纳了新保守主义。年轻的时候,保守主义就像大卫一样,充满生气,机智敏捷,意志坚定,面色红润,相貌堂堂。到了二十世纪七八十年代,美国保守主义可谓阳刚气十足。它结束了与国家主义的调情,准备直面并击败共产主义帝国主义(译注:苏联)的生存威胁,全身心致力于重振美国。里根赢得了冷战,一扫卡特时代的低迷,重启经济引擎,然而,这个利维坦国家仍在继续生长。

 

不过,两任布什总统扼杀了里根的遗产,没有借助里根在海外取得的胜利,进一步实现他在国内树立的目标,相反,他们拥抱了社会民主的冲动,用政府取代了人类的核心制度(如家庭和教会)。正是在这一点上,建制派保守主义迷失了方向,慢慢变成进步主义左派的影子——亦步亦趋,只不过比他们慢了几拍。

 

更糟糕的是,新一代野心家、马屁精、无知之徒蜂拥华盛顿,渴望找到一份优渥的闲差。传统的保守派媒体开始发生变化。它一步步抛弃了美国的历史原则,最终开始鄙视美国人民。他们的座右铭似乎来自罗马诗人贺拉斯,后者曾经写道:Odi profanum vulgus et arceo(我厌恶普通人,并且避而远之)。

 

但是,新一天终于来临。新保守主义的漫漫长夜已经结束,美国立宪主义的复兴即便没有到来,至少已经在望。这是右翼的新政治运动的首要目标,新的机构正在引领它,《美国伟大》(American Greatness)就是其中之一。

 

我们要做的事情很多。这些新机构还很年轻,成长和成熟尚需时日。川普领导的这场政治运动,仍在培养新一代的文化和政治领袖。对布什家族、保罗·瑞恩以及《旗帜周刊》的疏离,不过是一场顺其自然而又恰逢其时的重组的一部分。

 

共和党人和那些曾经支持里根现在支持川普的独立派选民,渴望拿回他们的国家。他们厌倦了被人欺骗、误导,后者口口声声为他们代言,却不了解他们、不关心他们甚至公开鄙视他们。为了美国的未来,与左派的斗争仍将继续,但是,这场战斗的一部分,就是要把右派团结在一套共同的美国历史原则的周围。

 

作为支持伊拉克战争的(a political movement in Iraq)的新保守主义已经声誉扫地,就像在川普时代,作为个人的新保守主义者——傲慢、小气、政治以及情感的不成熟——的声誉扫地一样。简单说,那些自称拥有统治权利的人,已经证明了他们不能被托付权力。这种认识增强了美国右派,同时也使得自由与安宁(美国宪政保护下的)的恢复变得更有可能。

 

 

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