空中俯瞰北京金融街道上的汽车( 2018年11月28日 路透社)

2018年的中国经济可谓风雨交加甚至是冰霜交加的一年。民营企业大批倒闭,导致失业大军剧增,大批在城镇打工的农民工失业,不得不返回乡下。

面对这种严峻的形势,中国共产党当局再度采取批评者所说的将丧事当喜事宣传的手法,将被迫返回农村的失业者称作“返乡下乡创业创新人员”。中国农业部官员去年11月上旬报告说,截至那时,2018年返乡下乡创业创新人员达740万。

中国当局没有发布2018年中国倒闭的民营企业的数字,但有一些研究中国经济的人士认为这个数字大约为500万,占3000万民营企业总数的六分之一。也有研究者认为,2018年中国民营企业倒闭数大约为100万。

在中国民营企业2018年哀鸿遍野之际,中国官方媒体报道说,中国国有企业利润同比增长12.9%。

民营企业的倒闭对中国的就业形势影响巨大。中国国务院副总理刘鹤在2018年10月中旬如此表述了民营经济在中国经济中的重要性:“民营经济在整个经济体系中具有重要地位,贡献了50%以上的税收,60%以上的GDP,70%以上的技术创新,80%以上的城镇劳动就业,90%以上的新增就业和企业数量。”

然而,批评者抱怨说,中国共产党及其政府当局所拥有和掌控的所谓的国有企业垄断和扭曲市场、与民争利是中国经济长久以来的严重问题,随着中国国家主席、中共总书记习近平的上台,这个问题变得更加严重。

2月7日,美国华尔街日报发表题为“中国国企如何挤压民企”的报道。报道说,中国国有企业不仅在获得银行融资上享有优势,还凭藉支配性的市场地位挤压民企供货商:

“掠夺者应该精壮、敏捷、以弱者为食,但若是臃肿、迟缓、以强者为食,则说明整个生态系统或经济体存在严重问题。

“中国国有企业虽然效率低下,却表现出掠夺行为,这不仅让中国的政策制定者感到担忧,也让美国的贸易谈判团队头疼。对这两个经济体而言,剪去国企羽翼均能带来益处。但中国国家主席习近平似乎不确信进行深入市场化改革的必要性。与此同时,中国民营部门受到的冲击,即经济学家所称的‘挤出效应’,却变得日益明显。”

华尔街日报所说的中国国有企业的掠夺行为让美国贸易谈判团队头痛是指,在去年7月上旬,美国川普政府开始先对来自中国500亿美元的商品加征关税,然后再对2000亿美元的中国商品家加征关税,以惩罚多年来中国不公平的贸易政策和做法;美中双方随后就中国的贸易政策和做法、中国未履行加入世界贸易组织时所做的承诺等问题进行谈判;华盛顿要求中国进行结构性改革,其中包括中国改变政府扶持国有企业垄断和扭曲市场的行为,但北京对美国这一要求坚决抗拒。

中国民间学者、前中国人民大学博士生江棋生表示,华尔街日报有关中国国有企业挤压民营企业的说法大致不错,但是说“中国国家主席(中共总书记)习近平似乎不确信进行深入市场化改革的必要性”显然是不对的,不符合事实的。

江棋生说,众所周知,中国是一个党国,党就是国家,国有企业就是中共的党企,在国有企业的问题上,习近平的思路一直很清楚,而且中国的官方媒体也反复报道了习近平强调要加强而不是削弱国企,对国企不能进行市场化改革:

“其实这个话也是(中共前最高领导人)邓小平的话,也是(中共前总书记)江泽民的话,也是(中共前总书记)胡锦涛的话。只是从邓小平开始以来,很多人都善良地以为共产党很难坚持这第一条。或许,说是这么说,但随着时间的推移或许就会放弃这一条,让私有经济,让外企也一样能够取得平等的主体地位。经过将近40年,共产党没有变。”

江棋生表示,中共当局始终认为国有企业的生死存亡关系中共政权的生死存亡,在这一点上,习近平异常坦率,实话实说。

据中国官方媒体报道,习近平早在2015年就说要把国有企业做大。近年来又不断发布指令,要求中共及其政府要“坚定不移”地“国有企业做强做优做大” 。习近平还说,“如果把国有企业搞小了、搞垮了、搞没了,公有制主体地位、国有经济主导作用还怎么坚持?工人阶级领导地位还怎么坚持?共同富裕还怎么实现?我们党的执政基础和执政地位还怎么巩固?”

与此同时,中国民间人士持续抱怨说,因为毫无监督机制,中国国企早就成了中共权贵的提款机,多数国企以银行输血或财政拨款度日,垄断的高利润行业(石油、电信等)竟然也能做成亏损。

自美中贸易战去年7月开始以来,华盛顿方面强调中国必须改革和纠正扭曲市场的结构性问题,而中国的国有企业是中国现有经济结构的一部分。

北京则表示,中国愿意进行进一步的经济改革和市场开放。但与此同时,面对美国方面坚持提出的结构性改革的要求,北京明确表示,不能改的坚决不改。中国国内外的观察家们普遍认为,由中共掌控的中国国有企业属于北京所说的坚决不改的范畴。

转自美国之音网  本网编辑:BIN XIA

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